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Institute of Physics articles

Displaying 1 - 17 of 17

Human skin pigmentation recreated with a 3D bioprinter

Human skin pigmentation recreated with a 3D bioprinter
A method for controlling pigmentation in fabricated human skin has been developed by researchers from A*STAR’s Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) and the Singapore Centre for 3D Printing (SC3DP) at Nanyang Technological University. In their paper, publishing today in Biofabrication, the team show how they utilise 3D bioprinting to control the distribution of melanin-producing skin cells (melanocytes) on a biomimetic tissue substrate, to produce human-like skin pigmentation.
16th March 2018

‘Digistain’ technology offers revolution in cancer diagnoses

‘Digistain’ technology offers revolution in cancer diagnoses
The way cancer is diagnosed could soon be more accurate and reliable thanks to a team of British scientists. The team, led by Professor Chris Phillips from Imperial College London, developed a new imaging technology to grade tumour biopsies. Publishing their results in the journal Convergent Science Physical Oncology, they describe how their new method promises to significantly reduce the subjectivity and variability in grading the severity of cancers.
12th March 2018

Modelling approach effectively predicts cancer tumour growth

Modelling approach effectively predicts cancer tumour growth
  A new and more effective method of predicting how cancer tumours grow and spread has been developed by a team of researchers in the US. Their study, published in the journal Convergent Science Physical Oncology, reports a new computational modelling approach, which fits more closely than previous models with the tumour behaviour seen in experimental observations.
3rd January 2018

Solution to bacterial antibiotic resistance may be found in plants

Solution to bacterial antibiotic resistance may be found in plants
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an ever-growing problem for healthcare, agriculture and hygiene, thanks to their indiscriminate and often excessive use. While natural, plant-derived antimicrobial small molecules may offer a potential solution, they often lack sufficient activity and selectivity to fulfil antibiotic requirements, and their conventional methods activation may not be compatible with biomedical applications.
12th September 2017

Cell culture system offers cancer breakthrough

Cell culture system offers cancer breakthrough
A new cell culture system that provides a tool for preclinical cancer drug development and screening has been developed by researchers in the USA. The team, led by scientists from Princeton University, New Jersey, created a microfluidic cell culture device that allows the direct, real-time observation of the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. They report their results in the journal Convergent Science Physical Oncology.
1st September 2017

Personalised radiotherapy may help beat bone tumours

Researchers in the UK have developed a personalised and more effective approach to treating cancer patients with bone metastases. The team used radiobiological models to calculate the absorbed radiation doses needed to eradicate all the bone lesions in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). They put forward a new model to predict the decrease in tumour size in patients treated with molecular radiotherapy.
20th March 2017

A step closer to first full-body PET scanner

Researchers from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) have revealed the first results from the EXPLORER project – which aims to build world’s first full total-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging technique widely used in clinical diagnostics and clinical research to observe metabolic processes and molecular pathways in the body.
28th February 2017

Research makes latest cancer treatment more precise

Researchers in Germany have taken an important step towards improving the accuracy of a highly effective radiotherapy technique used to treat cancer. The team, from the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), hoped to address uncertainty about the dosimetry – the measurement and assessment of the absorbed radiation dose – for carbon ion beam therapy.
16th February 2017

Modelling sheds light on bacteria behaviour

A study into how bacteria move, behave, and form colonies could allow a better understanding of infections, and pave the way to new antimicrobial treatments. For their paper, published in the New Journal of Physics, the interdisciplinary team from the Max Planck Institute and Helmholtz-Center, Dresden, and from Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, used multiscale computer modelling of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria to reveal how bacteria use pili to spread the infection by self-assembling into microcolonies and, eventually, biofilms.
9th January 2017

Gel pen improves drug development

One way to lower the cost of developing pharmaceutical drugs is by improving the predictive properties of preclinical screening. By making benchtop testing more realistic, ineffective drugs can fail faster and before they undergo expensive animal and human trials. To help tackle the issue, Alison McGuigan and her group at the University of Toronto in Canada have developed scaffold strips that can be loaded with cell populations and then rolled up to generate thick tumour sections for use in early-stage drug development.
19th September 2016

Breath analysis aims to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions

The overuse of antibiotics gives harmful bacteria the opportunity to evolve into drug resistant strains that threaten health care. To help tackle the problem, scientists in China have begun a pilot study examining biomarkers exhaled by patients. The team’s goal is to develop an efficient (fast, accurate, painless and affordable) test that will assist doctors in prescribing antibiotics only when the treatment is absolutely necessary.
8th June 2016

Prodding leukemia cells with nanoprobes could provide cancer clues

Giving blood cells a gentle squeeze can reveal a great deal about their health. To find out more, researchers in France have used a tiny force probe to compare the mechanical responses of healthy and cancerous hematopoietic cells (biological structures that help to renew blood in the body).
2nd June 2016

Theoretical tiger chases statistical sheep

Studying the way that solitary hunters such as tigers, bears or sea turtles chase down their prey turns out to be very useful in understanding the interaction between individual white blood cells and colonies of bacteria. Reporting their results in the Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, researchers in Europe have created a numerical model that explores this behaviour in more detail.
3rd May 2016

Saliva test for rapid diagnosis of poisoning

Saliva test for rapid diagnosis of poisoning
Scientists at Loughborough University and the University of Cordoba have developed a new method for the rapid diagnosis of poisoning in apparently drunk patients. The saliva-based test offers the potential to screen for poisons commonly associated with the cheap or imitation manufacture of alcohol and γ-hydroxybutyric acid - the so-called ‘date rape’ drug GHB.The results are published in the Journal of Breath Research.
7th January 2016

Neural stimulation offers treatment for ‘dry eye’

Neural stimulation offers treatment for ‘dry eye’
Scientists have developed a device that electronically stimulates tear production, which will offer hope to sufferers of 'dry eye' syndrome, one of the most common eye diseases in the world. The device, 16mm long, 3-4mm wide and 1-2mm thick, was implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland in rabbit eyes. It was activated wirelessly and shown to increase the generation of tears by nearly 57%.
11th December 2015

Detecting pilot hypoxia in-flight & in real-time

Detecting pilot hypoxia in-flight & in real-time
United States researchers, led by the Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th  Human Performance Wing, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, replicated a fairly standard ‘hypoxic’ event. Volunteers were exposed to 5 minutes of reduced oxygen levels to simulate higher altitudes, followed by 5 minutes at 100% oxygen ‘recovery’. This is a typical response protocol to in-flight hypoxia.
28th October 2015

Tissue-engineered 'liver' enables fast drug testing

Scientists have developed a new technique that produces a user friendly, low cost, tissue-engineered pseudo-organ, publishing the results in the journal Biofabrication. The chip-based model produces a faithful mimic of the in vivo liver inside a scalable fluid-handling device, demonstrating proof of principle for toxicology tests and opening up potential use in drug testing and personalised medicine.
15th September 2015

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